Iranian, Persian Alternative Names The term “Persian” is used as an adjective— especially pertaining to the arts—and to designate the principal language spoken in Iran. The term is often used to designate the larger cultural sphere of Iranian civilization. The terms “Iran” as the designation for the civilization, and “Iranian” as the name for the inhabitants occupying the large plateau located between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf have been in continual use for more than twenty-five hundred years. They are related to the term “Aryan” and it is supposed that the plateau was occupied in prehistoric times by Indo-European peoples from Central Asia. Through many invasions and changes of empire, this essential designation has remained a strong identifying marker for all populations living in this region and the many neighboring territories that fell under its influence due to conquest and expansion. Ancient Greek geographers designated the territory as “Persia” after the territory of Fars where the ancient Achamenian Empire had its seat. Today as a result of migration and conquest, people of Indo-European, Turkic, Arab, and Caucasian origin have some claim to Iranian cultural identity. Many of these peoples reside within the territory of modern Iran.
Iranian languages, subgroup of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. Iranian languages are spoken in Iran , Afghanistan , Tajikistan , and parts of Iraq , Turkey , Pakistan , and scattered areas of the Caucasus Mountains. Linguists typically approach the Iranian languages in historical terms because they fall readily into three distinct categories—Ancient, Middle, and Modern Iranian.
Parts of what is modern-day northwestern Iran was part of the Kura–Araxes culture (circa BC—ca. BC), that stretched up into the neighboring regions of the Caucasus and Anatolia.. Susa is one of the oldest-known settlements of Iran and the world. Based on C14 dating, the time of foundation of the city is as early as BC, a time that goes beyond the age of civilization in.
The country is bounded on the north by the Transcaucasian and Turkistan territories of the former Soviet Union along with the Caspian Sea , on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, on the west by Iraq and Turkey, and on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean. Most of Iran is a geographic plateau located about 4, feet above sea level; the plateau is spotted with mountains where the annual snowfall provides much of the water needed for irrigation during the hot spring and summer months.
Although most of the country is arid and desert-like, the majority of the population is located in the area around the Caspian Sea, which has a hot and humid climate. As of the early s, approximately one third of the population was occupied in agriculture, one third in the service sector, and another third in manufacturing, mining, construction, and utilities. Unemployment grew throughout the s, however, reaching an estimated Iran is the nineteenth most populous nation in the world, approaching 50 million people in the late s.
Nearly half the Iranian population is ethnically non-Arab, being considered direct descendants of Aryan invaders of the second century B. Other significant ethnic groups descend from ancient Arabic and Turkish conquerors; there are also smaller populations of nomadic tribes, including Kurds, Lurs, Bakhtiari, Qashqa’i, Mamasani, Khamseh, Shahsevans, Baluchi, and Turkomans.
The majority of Iran’s population converted to the Islamic religion in the seventh century A.
Iranian art and architecture
The Persian words goftare nik, pendare nik, kerdare nik meaning good words, good thoughts, good deeds became the main keystones of the religion called Zoroastrianism. It is known as history’s oldest monotheistic religion and was founded by a man who became a prophet and who also was the first philosopher in history. His name was Zarathushtra. These ideas were sprung out of the place where Zarathushtra lived which is considered to be in modern day northeastern Iran and which in ancient times were one of the main geographical sites where the Aryan civilization thrived.
Iranian languages, subgroup of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. Iranian languages are spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and parts of Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, and scattered areas of the Caucasus Mountains. Linguists typically approach the Iranian languages in.
Close This article is 4 years old Mohammed Mosaddeq is described in one US document as ‘mercurial, maddening, adroit, and provocative’. On the 60th anniversary of an event often invoked by Iranians as evidence of western meddling, the US national security archive at George Washington University published a series of declassified CIA documents. Britain, and in particular Sir Anthony Eden, the foreign secretary, regarded Mosaddeq as a serious threat to its strategic and economic interests after the Iranian leader nationalised the British Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, latterly known as BP.
But the UK needed US support. The Eisenhower administration in Washington was easily persuaded. Official papers in the UK remain secret, even though accounts of Britain’s role in the coup are widespread.
Ruins of the Gate of All Nations , Persepolis. Ruins of the Apadana , Persepolis. Depiction of united Medes and Persians at the Apadana , Persepolis. Ruins of the Tachara , Persepolis. In BC, Cyaxares , Deioces ‘ grandson, and the Babylonian king Nabopolassar invaded Assyria and laid siege to and eventually destroyed Nineveh , the Assyrian capital, which led to the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
Although Iran, also called Persia, was the world’s oldest empire, dating back 2, years, by it was floundering. Bandits dominated the land; literacy was one percent; and women, under.
In the 11th century the Seljuq Turks overran Persia and Mesopotamia, and their ascendancy lasted until the advent of the Mongols during the 13th century. As the Seljuqs had no capital, the most flourishing cities during this time were those… Early Iranian period The most artistically important, though not the most ancient, prehistoric painted pottery of Iran is derived from Susiana Elam.
The stylized shapes of animals and birds are used, their curves and contrasting angularities skillfully adapted to the sensitive shapes of the clay vessels in a manner that implies a long history of evolutionary experiment. The simplified silhouettes, which once must have appeared as individual figures, are linked together in a repetitive frieze to form a band of enrichment or to articulate some plastic feature.
Nothing of this sort is to be seen in the contemporary Ubaid pottery of southern Mesopotamia, although the two cultures show a parallel progression. In the succeeding Protoliterate period , each culture produced an independent form of pictographic writing. In Iran, this development took place in Elam, a region bordering on southern and central Mesopotamia. The Elamite use of pictographs was short-lived, however, and for a long time no further attempt was made to develop a written language.
Modern knowledge of Elamite history during the centuries that followed thus depends exclusively on references in Mesopotamian literature, occasioned by the perpetual contacts between the two countries. Trade was on a large scale, and even the wars that so frequently interrupted it supplied the Elamites with Mesopotamian goods, including works of art that could serve as a pattern for Iranian artists.
The stelae of Naram-Sin and Hammurabi were among major works brought as loot to the Elamite capital at Susa, where they have since been found.
A source told CHRI: Then they sentenced him to death. His mother said in a video interview obtained by CHRI: Nouri was issued a death sentence, but it is unknown if the Supreme Court has given its final ruling. Eliasi had his seven-year prison sentence reduced to three on appeal.
The Iranian peoples, or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.. The Proto-Iranians are believed to have emerged as a separate branch of the Indo-Iranians in Central Asia in the mid-2nd millennium BC. At their peak of expansion in the mid-1st millennium BC, the territory of the Iranian peoples stretched across.
However, before the Shah was removed from power, Iranian culture was quite progressive and Westernized. Many Iranians who enjoyed considerable freedoms before never gave up their desire for Western culture and still try to enjoy it behind closed doors. For most of us who perceive Iranians as radical or completely devout, the reality is actually quite shocking. The official punishment for consuming alcohol in Iran is 80 lashes , a barbaric punishment that millions of citizens risk every year just so they can drink.
These draconian laws were first put into place in when the shah was overthrown, and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini came to power. In addition to smuggled alcohol, there is a huge domestic industry that produces alcohol illicitly. Many of those who drink in Iran also drive drunk. In , 26 percent of Tehran drivers were drunk when given alcohol tests during the one-month period from April 20 to May The number of alcohol abusers in Iran is stunning.
According to the World Health Organization, the number of people who drink more than 35 liters 9 gal of alcohol a year is enough to rank Iran 19th in the world—ahead of Russia, Germany, Britain, and even the US. Alcohol is especially popular with young people, who see it as a way to escape their highly restricted lives. In , though, Iran permitted the opening of new treatment centers to help deal with the problem. In the photographs, they are shown drinking expensive champagne and partying with bikini-clad girls.
Iranian man sentenced to death for ‘insulting Islam’ through messaging app
According to one version the sun was on the first point of Aries at midday of the day Ohrmazd of the month of Frawardin. All the above-mentioned hypotheses about the Y. This presumption is, however, contrary to our oldest reports of the Iranian calendar by early Muslim astronomers.
Iranian women are showing their support for a teenager detained by the authorities under the country’s strict modesty laws by sharing videos of themselves dancing on social media.
See Article History Iranian art and architecture, the art and architecture of ancient Iranian civilizations. Any reservation about attributing to Iran primary status among the countries contributing to the art of the ancient Middle East must be associated with the discontinuity of its early history and the comparatively incomplete state of its archaeological exploration. Nevertheless, it is clear that Iranian art maintained a distinctive identity from prehistoric times onward; thus, characteristics seen in designs on painted pottery of the 4th millennium bce can also be recognized, for instance, in the sculpture of the Achaemenian Persians.
One of these characteristics—manifest in bronze casting and stone carving as well as in painted ornament—is the predominance of decoration over representation. Such purely Iranian predilections seem, surprisingly, to have survived the historical hiatus in the 2nd and 3rd millennia bce, during which the more culturally advanced regions of the country were so profoundly influenced by the ideas and artistic formulas of neighbouring Mesopotamia.
During the better-documented years of the 1st millennium, they again survived, side-by-side with the innovations imposed by Greek and other foreign craftsmen, and were later in fact reciprocally transmitted to Europe. Early Iranian period The most artistically important, though not the most ancient, prehistoric painted pottery of Iran is derived from Susiana Elam. The stylized shapes of animals and birds are used, their curves and contrasting angularities skillfully adapted to the sensitive shapes of the clay vessels in a manner that implies a long history of evolutionary experiment.
The simplified silhouettes, which once must have appeared as individual figures, are linked together in a repetitive frieze to form a band of enrichment or to articulate some plastic feature. Nothing of this sort is to be seen in the contemporary Ubaid pottery of southern Mesopotamia, although the two cultures show a parallel progression. In the succeeding Protoliterate period , each culture produced an independent form of pictographic writing.
In Iran, this development took place in Elam, a region bordering on southern and central Mesopotamia. The Elamite use of pictographs was short-lived, however, and for a long time no further attempt was made to develop a written language. Modern knowledge of Elamite history during the centuries that followed thus depends exclusively on references in Mesopotamian literature, occasioned by the perpetual contacts between the two countries.
10 Surprising Facts About Iranian Culture
Faith and beliefs Gujarat is influenced with enculturation; a culture shared with members of the society and passed on from one generation to the next. Enculturation has unified people with common sense experience and influence that lead to knowledge and appreciation of cultural traditions and lifestyles. The aspect of joining hands to greet or bow down comes through age influences as offering reverence.
History and description of Haplogroup R1a (Y-chromosomal DNA) and its subclades. Haplogroup R1a is the dominant paternal lineage in Northeast Europe and southern Central Asia. It was diffused around Eurasia by the Indo-Aryans and Balto-Slavic people.
Near me in Kensington Brooklyn, NY is a large community of Pakistani Muslims, and you regularly see young men holding hands in the street, gazing into each others eyes and talking in whispers — I kid you not! When I lived in Astoria Queens, NY there was an Egyptian area, and the same thing, you would see young men in hookah bars, sitting on couches, arms around each other, chit chatting the night away, and again supposedly they were heterosexuals.
Ditto for all the poetic winebibbing. For the youth, a homosexual affair might be a passing fling, something one outgrew. For the older man, it would be a convenience, given the difficulty of conducting an affair with a woman in purdah. I have the impression that only a persistent preference for males over females would lead others to categorize a man as a boy-lover. Based on reading poetry, memoirs, history in translation, so I could be off-base here.
A college buddy of mine would, if seeing a movie with only a single male friend, insist on keeping an empty seat between himself and the other guy.